Diabetes is a process where elevated blood sugars can adversely affect any number of the eyes properties. Diabetics are at a greater risk to develop open angle glaucoma, in addition to developing cataract at a greater rate. Perhaps most significantly, diabetes may result in a condition known as diabetic retinopathy.

Diabetic retinopathy is a process where the blood vessels in the retina begin to leak, causing swelling (edema). When the degree of edema becomes significant, a laser procedure known as a "focal treatment" is used to attempt to decrease the retinal swelling. As with glaucoma, the best strategy is prevention, because even after successful treatment, vision may not be restored.

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